During the Golden age Baghdad was the center of the Muslim civilization.
One might speculate that commerce conducted by Jewish emissaries, merchants, craftsmen, or other tradesmen among the Semitic Tyrean Phoenicians might have brought them to Tarshish.
Although the notion of Tarshish as Spain is merely based on suggestive material, it leaves open the possibility of a very early, although perhaps limited, Jewish presence in the Iberian peninsula.
The earliest mention of Spain Hispania is, allegedly, found in Obadiah 1: It is best for us that we remain here in our place and to serve God. However, that they might not be thought of as wicked men and those who are lacking in fidelity, may God forbid, they wrote down for them this magnanimous praise, etc.
Yet, no apology was of any avail to them, neither unto the rest of the Jews, till at length six hundred-thousand souls had evacuated from there. This man was a Grecian by birth, but who had been given a kingdom in Spain.
He became related by marriage to a certain Espan, the nephew of king Heracles, who also ruled over a kingdom in Spain. The Jewish exiles transported there by the said Phiros were descended by lineage from Judah, Benjamin, Shimon and Levi, and were, according to Abrabanel, settled in two districts in southern Spain: He says, furthermore, that the original name of the city was Pirisvalle, so-called by its early pagan inhabitants.
He also writes there  that he found written in the ancient annals of Spanish history collected by the kings of Spain that the 50, Jewish households then residing in the cities throughout Spain were the descendants of men and women who were sent to Spain by the Roman Emperor and who had formerly been subjected to him and whom Titus had originally exiled from places in or around Jerusalem.
The two Jewish exiles joined together and became one. Exactly how soon after this time Jews made their way onto the scene is a matter of speculation.
It is within the realm of possibility that they went there under the Romans as free men to take advantage of its rich resources and build enterprises there.
These early arrivals would have been joined by those who had been enslaved by the Romans under Vespasian and Titusand dispersed to the extreme west during the period of the Jewish-Roman Warand especially after the defeat of Judea in Thus, he writes in his Antiquities: Subsequent immigrations came into the area along both the northern African and southern European sides of the Mediterranean.
Among the earliest records which may refer specifically to Jews in Spain during the Roman period is Paul's Letter to the Romans. Many have taken Paul's intention to go to Spain to minister the gospel Perhaps the most substantial of early references are the several decrees of the Council of Elviraconvened in the early fourth century, which address proper Christian behavior with regard to the Jews of Spain, notably forbidding marriage between Jews and Christians.
Among the early Spanish items of more reliably Jewish origins is an amphora which is at least as old as the 1st century. Although this vessel is not from the Spanish mainland it was recovered from Ibizain the Balearic Islandsthe imprint upon it of two Hebrew characters attests to Jewish contact, either direct or indirect, with the area at this time.
Two trilingual Jewish inscriptions from Tarragona and Tortosa have been variously dated from the 2nd century BCE to the 6th century. There is also the tombstone inscription from Adra formerly Abdera of a Jewish girl named Salomonula, which dates to the early 3rd century Encyclopaedia Judaica, p.
Thus, while there are limited material and literary indications for Jewish contact with Spain from a very early period, more definitive and substantial data begins with the third century.
Data from this period suggest a well-established community, whose foundations must have been laid some time earlier. It is likely that these communities originated several generations earlier in the aftermath of the conquest of Judea, and possible that they originated much earlier.
There may have been  close contact between the Jewish community of Babylon and Spain, as the Talmud  documents that Yitzhak the Exilarchson of the sister of Rav Beivai  traveled from "Cordoba to Hispania". As citizens of the Roman Empirethe Jews of Spain engaged in a variety of occupations, including agriculture.If you are referring to the Golden Age of Islamic Spain(ss), the Muslims were in power at that time, so theytreated themselves quite well.
The image of the Golden Age remained dominant among scholars and in the gen- eral public throughout the nineteenth century, as Jews in Europe confronted a new, virulent strain of political anti-Semitism, reinforcing a much older feeling of aliena-.
Despite these concerns, by the seventh century Sephardim had flourished, beginning a time known as the “Golden Age of Spain.” During this period, Sephardic Jews reached the highest echelons of secular government and the military. Sephardic Poets of the Jewish Golden Age of Spain.
Sections: The Backstory; of course, a relative one. This entire medieval period was in no way a “golden age” for any group—Jews, Christians, or Muslims—in political terms, since the entire region was periodically embroiled in one war or another.
The Jews of Spain: A History of. Spain Virtual Jewish History Tour. during this “Golden Age” of Spain, Jews rose to great prominence in society, the Golden Age of Spain began to decline as the Muslims began to battle the Christians for control of the Iberian Peninsula and Spanish kingdoms in The Golden Age for Jewry in Muslim Spain declined after the Almovarids gained power in and continued to deteriorate after the Almohads came to power in Jews continued to work as moneylenders, jewelers, cobblers, tailors and tanners, however, they had to wear distinguishing clothing, such as a yellow turban.